Heavy aluminum faced peel/stick flashing, roof repair and waterproofing tape. ComBitchathane (more correctly Bituthene) / Roofing tar paper: If you are going on an international paddling trip or simply a trip into the backcountry, throw in a roll of Bitchathane from the hardware store. In this article we describe the most popular types of roofs for both residential houses and other types of buildings as well. I work on old houses as a carpenter-designer-builder and GC. ), or cheaper.
The choice of colors is an important feature for achieving good appearance. If the roof is properly maintained and inspected, it is not unreasonable to expect your metal roof to last 40 years or longer. Of course, sound weather-resisting stone must be chosen, and fundamental rock like granite, gneiss, porphyry, diabas or crystallized limestone are especially suitable. Bituthene post-applied waterproofing membranes are designed for above- and belowgrade applications, as well as a wide variety of wearing surfaces above occupied space, inverted roofs, green roofs, and elevated concrete decks. Warner Roofing & Construction Inc. Down Sizing Shops III Last Friday I had some help from my son Tom and my friend Jim. Jetzt kaufen For Ghost Writers: Us Haunting Them editors Keith Taylor and Laura Kasischke asked twelve celebrated Michigan writers to submit new stories on one subject: ghosts.
For steel bridges, good use should be made of the technical necessity of protecting the steel with paint to improve appearance and to achieve harmonious integration of the structure within the landscape. LEED Letter. In this way smooth looking trusses arise without the &92;&92;"unrest&92;&92;" which occurs by joining two or four profiles of rolled section with lattice or plates.
Roger says: Ap at 9:51 am Todd, I need to add flashing to an existing deck which has a ledger board using lag bolts attached to band board per building code. Torch on actually has a wear strip and sand granuals and is designed as the wear membrane for a roof. 2806 NE 65th Ave, UNIT D Vancouver, com Washington LIC WARNERC066OR. Top Rated DMX 1-STEP 100 sq. Roll: EternaBond AlumiBond AS-2-50, 2 inch wide x 50 foot roll. Finish before the metal goes up. This protective rust has a warm sepia-toned color which looks fine in open country.
15 year Eternabond Warranty. &0183;&32;Great read! Granite of a uniform grey color and sawn surface can look as dull as simple plain concrete. Concrete is a construction material used in almost all construction works. Surfaces can also be enlivened by bright or dark joint-filling. Having a dull grey color, usually concrete is not preferred in construction like bridges but some of concrete bridges have turned out to be beauties, if someone knows the art. Grace Construction Products GRACE ULTRA™ Self-adhered architectural roof and façade underlayment for applications requiring superior protection. Using Bitchathane in that case is a great tip as well.
It is the premium self-adhesive waterproof flashing membrane for windows. Fast and free shipping free returns cash on delivery available on eligible purchase. Coarse embossing does not suit a small pier only 1 m thick and 5 m high, but large sized ashlars masonry is suitable for large arch bridges such as the Saalebrucke Jena or the Lahntalbrucke Limburg. That's why when you have leaks and other elemental penetration in your rig, the majority of the time those incursions come from your roof. DeThe Bituthene Systemsq. For Ghost Writers: Us Haunting Them editors Keith Taylor and Laura Kasischke asked twelve celebrated Michigan writers to submit new stories on one subject: ghosts. Shop TITE-SEAL Self-Adhesive Waterproof 4-in x 33-ft Rubberized Asphalt Roll Flashing in the Roll Flashing department at Lowe's. PVC membrane sits at the corner looking at us.
I still have a little work to. · Bituthene post-applied waterproofing membranes are designed for above- and belowgrade applications, as well as a wide variety of wearing surfaces above occupied space, inverted roofs, green roofs, and elevated concrete decks. You might be wondering if using an underlayment is necessary.
Can be used on RVs and Trailer homes 4. See full list on buymbs. For building purposes, steel is fabricated in the form of plates (6 to 80mm thick) by means of rolling when red hot. Special grades for application to damp surfaces or green concrete, with special primers, are also available. Waterproofing products begin to age as soon as they are exposed to nature, and buildings experience aging factors differently.
It has excel- lent adhesion to structural concrete, masonry and wood. For bridges high strength steel is often preferred. With stone one can build bridges which are both beautiful, durable and of large span (up to 150 m). The choice of colors of the stone is also relevant. MEL-ROL is a self-adhering waterproofing membrane, providing a cost-effective answer to properly waterproof foundations, vertical walls & below-grade floors. It's composed of an aluminized polymer film and coated with a specially formulated rubberized. The other option is calling the roofer for torch down or hot mop. Aluminum profiles are fabricated by the extrusion process which allows many varied hollow shapes to be formed, so that aluminum structures can be more elegant than those of steel.
Caution is necessary with sandstones, as only siliceous sandstone is durable. Bituthene 4000 Surface Conditioner is a water-based, latex surface treatment which imparts an aggressive, high tack finish to the treated substrate. See full list on pmsilicone. See more results. This could include periodic painting to avoid rust, replacement of defective or damaged panels, and re-fastening the roof if any fasteners become dislodged during roof movement. The guy also talks about how the ice & water shield seals itself around roofing nails, which helps to distinguish it from a traditional underlayment product (e. Act 4: The Sequel.
Project MUSE Mission. Bituthene membranes are formulated to be applied and perform under a variety of temperature conditions. The great old bridges of the Etruscans, the Romans, the Fratres Pontifices of the middle ages (since about 1100) and of later master builders were built with stone masonry. You don&39;t need to get a professional in to apply rolled roofing to your house or shed, you. Tape the flap temporarily out of the way. This proprietary resin formula is used in the walk and deckside surfaces to create a slip resistant surface.
Flat roofs with no overhang or gutter system create more opportunity for water to damage the exterior walls of the home, too. The lifespan of a metal roof can also vary depending on the type of metal chosen, with many different metals available. The Bituthene Systemsq. I’ve really changed. MFM Peel & Seal is the original, patented self-stick roll roofing. A strong, resilient roof is a home’s first line of defense when the roof deck is exposed to weather. Substructure Waterproofing - Ancillaries Grace Protection 03 Bituminous board for permanent protection of Grace waterproof membrane. For bearings and some other items, cast steel is used.
Up by Friday. 1) Measure your house foundation length / width, and enter your dimensions into "roof size" fields. In addition to plate girders, trusses also take full advantage of the material properties of steel. The name is universal; the products are not. The resulting collection is a satisfying mix of tales by some of the state's most well-known and award-winning writers. Aluminum profiles are popular for bridge parapets because they need no protective paint. Tri-Flex 15 is a synthetic roofing underlayment coated with polypropylene on both sides and offers many benefits to traditional 15 felt.
&0183;&32;Bitchathane: Bitchathane is a protective material used in construction to full-proof roofs against snow and ice. Family with 15 infections makes COVID-19 PSA. WE had the trusses up by around 1:00. Cut the house wrap at the top of the header at a 45-degree angle to create a flap. Ice & Water shield/ Bitchathane: A self-adhering, waterproofing shingle underlayment designed to protect against water infiltration due to ice dams or wind driven rain. A rubber roof, known in the roofing business as an EPDM (ethylene propylene diene terpolymer) roof, has a lot of advantages and only a few disadvantages. Rolled roofing has become more and more popular in recent years. Bituthene 3000 is a high performance, cold applied, flexible, preformed waterproof membrane combining a special high performance cross-laminated, HDPE carrier film with a unique self-adhesive rubber bitumen compound.
As of, the average price to install metal roofing is . Bitchathane: First Tiles: Starting West Side: West Side Progress: Starting North Side: North Side Progress: Roof Finished! MFM Peel & Seal is the original, patented self-stick roll roofing.
For tensile reinforcement of concrete steel bars are embedded into it. From the USA came Tentor steel, alloyed with copper, its &39;first corrosion layer being said to protect it against further corrosion. It forms an ideal seal keeping out moisture and wind driven rain, thereby preventing mold, and saving energy by stopping air leaks and eliminating drafts. Apply the peel-and-stick flashing to the sill first, then lap the flashing up on the jambs. Certain roofing systems do pay themselves off by saving you money on energy and maintenance expenses, but many roofing systems dont last long enough to pay themselves off. Painting of normal steels is technically necessary and can be used for color design of the bridge.
Sounds like you are talking about a material called Bitchathane (sp) I think. If youre looking for a long lasting roofing system with a reasonable price tag, EPDM is a good choice. Check out the most common roofing materials and their lifespans. With the right product, you can protect the roof base from significant damage and possible repair costs. Jim had to leave at that point, so Tom and I put the sheathing up and then. Nor does fatigue strength rise in proportion to the tensile strength. Specification Document 6. Don't forget to include roof overhangs.
It is specifically formulated to bind site dust and concrete efflorescence, thereby providing a suitable surface for the Bituthene System 4000 Waterproofing Membrane. Free Englert Roofing Mobile App Download: Easy access to all Englert brochures and catalogs, a color selector for both roofing and gutter colors, standing seam metal roof panel profiles, and a convenient coil calculator to assist in estimating and completing your particular project. It&39;s composed of an aluminized polymer film and coated with a specially formulated rubberized asphalt adhesive.
Despite no authoritative answer on the life of the system, there are many SPF roofing systems that, when coated and maintained properly, have lasted 50+ years, giving SPF the longest roofing system lifespan of all common roofing materials. &0183;&32;Mobile homes with flat roofs aren't as popular as they once were. Stone is nowadays usually confined to the surfaces, the stones being preset or fixed as facing for abutments, piers or arches. For many homeowners who are looking to install a metal roof on their house, cost is a huge factor. Sprayed Polyurethane Foam, also referred to as SPF, probably has the longest roofing system lifespan in the study.
Robert, the pan has a very odd shape. Buy Ghost Writers: Us Haunting Them: Contemporary Michigan Literature by Taylor, Keith, Kasischke, Laura online on Amazon. Safety Data 7. I am quite keen learn more as the building inspector is very much in favour of it. Visit the post for more. Description Bituthene®Mastic is a rubberized, asphalt-based mastic. Long-lasting, versatile and easy to install, the BITUTHENE® waterproofing system gets the job done. Looking for concrete services, foundation repair, or basement waterproofing?
More Bitchathane images. Sticks to almost any surface 3. GRACE MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET Product Name : Waterproofing Membrane MSDS ID Number: M-85703 MSDS Date:. Part 1 looks at a history of complaints by. They can be expected to last 25-30 years. MEL-ROL is composed of a 56 mil thick layer of polymeric waterproofing membrane on a heavy duty, four-mil thick, cross-laminated polyethylene carrier film. &0183;&32;You remember Catcher in the Rye, I’m sure.
See also pictures of each design along with pros and cons etc. Very delicate looking bridges can be built by joining slender steel sections together to form a truss. This lifespan can only be expected if the roof is maintained over the years. Waterproof Membrane and Conditioner is a flexible, pre-formed membrane designed for foundation walls, tunnels, earth-sheltered structures and more.
Synthetic underlayment is a newer innovation that is taking over the metal roofing industry as a better, more advanced replacement for felt underlayment. Discount Waterproofing Products, Marine Coatings, Basement Waterproofing, Foundation Waterproofing, Below Grade Waterproofing, Roof Waterproofing, Underwater and Pool Repair Products, Waterproofing Membranes and more. FortiFlash is engineered to deliver lasting protection against water intrusion in the most demanding environmental conditions. Grace Bituthene 3000 Flexible Waterproof Membrane is a high performance, cold applied, flexible, preformed waterproof membrane combining a special high performance cross-laminated, HDPE carrier film with a unique self-adhesive rubber bitumen compound.
High wind tolerance 7. It is a good. There are steels which do not corrode in a normal environment (the stainless steels V2A and V4A to DIN 17440), but are so expensive that they are used only for components that are either particularly susceptible to the attacks of corrosion or that are very inaccessible. For sealing windows, doors, and building joints. I pick up the metal roof and hope to have it. Some of the pieces are true stories written by non-believers, while others are clearly fiction and can be.
The arches and piers have lasted for thousands of years when hard stone was used and the foundations constructed on firm ground. Unfortunately, stone bridges have become very expensive. Bituthene System 4000 Waterproofing Membrane & Surface Conditioner is a product in the Self-Adhering Sheet Waterproofing category. EternaBond AlumiBond AS-2-50 Waterproofing / Roof Tape, 2 inch x 50 ft.
Synthetic underlayment is a roofing accessory created by weaving/spinning together polypropylene or polyethylene and a polymer to form an all-over protective barrier to put between the roofing material and the roof deck. · Rolled roofing has become more and more popular in recent years. &0183;&32;The source of the vast majority of foundation problems is water.
Made in the U. A harmonious mixture of different colors and slightly embossed surfaces can look very lively, even when the masonry areas are extensive. At Fortified Foundations, we can provide all these services and much more! Flexible and powerful.
· For many homeowners who are looking to install a metal roof on their house, cost is a huge factor. Shop Home Waterproofing and Moisture Barriers at DIYHomeCenter. This type of protection, however, does not last in polluted air and the corrosion continues. Down Sizing Shops II. BITUTHENE&174; is available in a number of grades to suit your project needs. Hello, Sign in.
This range is 5 years longer than metal, but concrete is reliable right up to the end of its life. This system is growing quickly in popularity in the US thanks in part to its longer-than-normal lifespan. Account & Lists Account Returns & Orders.
Mobile homes with flat roofs aren&39;t as popular as they once were. &0183;&32;In a series of stories, Berkeleyside examines the building where six people died and seven were seriously injured Tuesday after a balcony collapsed. The maintenance required to allow your concrete roof to last its full expected life is much less than that required for a metal roof or most other systems for that matter. Aluminum was occasionally used for bridges and the same form was used as for steel girders. According to the study, metal is expected to last somewhere between 30-45 years after installation. See more videos for Bitchathane.
The truth is, there is no downside. Over a long period, however, stone bridges, which are well designed and well built, might perhaps turn out be the cheapest, because they are long-lasting and need almost no maintenance over centuries unless attacked by extreme air pollution. Modern steel girder bridges now hardly differ from pre-stressed concrete bridges in their external appearance - except perhaps in their color. And another point to mention, Asphalt based "dampeners" smell like a freshly paved road. Warranty 8. &0183;&32;Re: Bituthane for shower pan? Again welding has improved the potential for good form, because hollow sections can be fabricated and joined without the use of big gusset plates. With proper application, prevents water leaks, air infiltration, and reduces noise.
Find submittal-ready datasheets, SDS, specs, ICC-ES reports. Holden Caulfield was my hero for a long time. Good concrete attains high compressive strength and resistance against most natural attacks though not against de-icing saltwater, or CO2 and SO2 in polluted air. Primers and Sealants 4. I have been working on the new shop for awhile now.
Many building owners purchase a new roofing system for the building thinking the money they save on energy costs or on low maintenance will allow them to break even on the purchase price. When concrete can no longer resist further tensile stresses. Membrane known as "Bitchathane". &0183;&32;Negative test does not mean you can safely socialize. One of the big advantages to rubber is the cost. Find Waterproofer waterproofers & sealers at Lowe's today.
The sizes of the stone blocks and the roughness of their surfaces must be harmonized with the size of the structure, the abutments, the piers etc. All the words. Request a Sample from MFM 2. Nowhere else on your rig are you more exposed to a barrage of direct water, heat, and temperature than your RV's top covering. It was thus possible to develop the light-weight &92;&92;"orthotropic plate&92;&92;" steel decks for roadways, which have now become common with an asphalt wearing course, 60 to 80 mm thick. Some is torch on roofing; other stuff is peel and stick "ice and water" membranes. Some of the pieces are true stories written by non-believers, while others are clearly fiction and can be funny. The higher the strength, the smaller the proportional difference between the yield strength and the tensile strength, and this means that high strength steels are not as ductile as those with normal strength.
Step 3 Install J-channel along the sides of the opening. Concrete is a much more durable roofing material with a life expectancy of 35-50 years. If you want a roofing system that will save you enough money that it becomes profitable, continue reading about the most common roofing system lifespans. The cracks remain harmless called hair cracks&92;&92;", if bars are designed and place correctly. When compared to shingles, rolled roofing is far cheaper and much easier to apply. New England Roofing offers a 6-Part Roofing System:.
Their effectiveness has been proven time and again in countless projects. For members under tension only, like ropes or cables, there are special steels, processed in different ways which allow us to build bold suspension or cable-stayed bridges. This is perhaps regrettable, because stiffeners on the outside enliven the plate-faces, give scale and make the girder look less heavy. Not something I wanna smell every time I am in the car.
(Quick recap: The video shows you exactly what ice & water shield looks like and where it’s installed. The BITUTHENE® waterproofing system is the most trusted post-applied waterproofing membrane. One of the longer roofing system lifespans in the study is that of EPDM (rubber) roofs.
Some of the pieces are true stories written by. Protecto Wrap Company 1955 South Cherokee Street Denver, CO 80223 Toll Free:Local:Fax:Email: &0183;&32;How to use metal roof calculator Before ordering your roofing materials, it is important to accurately determine the size of your roof. Because it is difficult to predict how long waterproofing products will last, tamko offers a limited warranty that includes a binding arbitration clause and other terms and conditions which are incorporated herein by reference. Underlayment for Vinyl Planks, Laminate and Engineered Hardwood Floors.
MFM Peel & Seal is made of aluminum composite foil, polymer films, and a rubberized asphalt adhe. TIP: To make this really water tight, use a wide piece of ice and water barrier (called bitchathane) behind both the ledger board and up under the siding. · Mobile homes with flat roofs aren&39;t as popular as they once were. If you have a house wrap make sure the bichathane is behind it also. Yes, it might be a little more of a financial investment but the benefits vastly outweigh the cost. These cookies are necessary for the services and viewing experience of this site, and cannot be opted out here.
More and more I see on other people’s jobs and on mine as well, roofers putting Ice & Water Shield (Bituthane etc. Technical Data Sheet 5. Grace Waterproofing Systems March Contractor’s Handbook Grace Construction Products Sticker prints in 2Colors - pms 368 green and pms 2738 blue.
I tried to reread that book a few years ago and couldn’t. Tar paper, roofing felt, thermoplastic polyolefin, etc. Available in White, Almond, Aluminum, and Gray 2. It is therefore necessary to have a profound knowledge of the behavior of these special steels before using them. Specializing in EPDM roofing for RV & Flatroofs. It is an amazing patching material when you find yourself between a rock and a nasty hike out. Proper construction techniques for waterproofing foundations and basements can prevent costly damage.
Allied Building Products: distributor of roofing, siding, waterproofing, interior products, windows, skylights, doors, tools & more to residential & commercial building contractors. &0183;&32;What material provides the longest roofing system lifespan? Even a roofing system that is installed correctly may not survive its full expected life due to many outside factors that impact roof life. Posted by Dust'n Lint at 8:13 AM No comments: Monday, Septem. The resulting collection is a satisfying mix of tales by some of the state’s most well-known and award-winning writers.
Schnelle Lieferung, auch auf Rechnung - lehmanns. A self-adhesive waterproof flashing tape for windows and doors. These materials have different qualities of strength, workability, durability and resistance against corrosion.
Shop waterproofers & sealers and a variety of paint products online at Lowes. Supplied as an easily-applied sheet, It can be cold-applied at temperatures as low as 15&176;C, and can be placed on a variety of concrete surfaces. It is also ideally suited for flashing non-roofing horizontal conditions such as pot shelves, parapets, sill pans and recessed windows. The traditional building materials for bridges are stones, timber and steel, and more recently reinforced and pre-stressed concrete. For special elements aluminum and its alloys and some types of plastics are used. ZIP System roof assembly combines our revolutionary integrated sheathing and flashing tape or liquid flashing to provide a sealed roof for protection against moisture intrusion during construction or if high winds strip the roof covering away.
Maintenance is a burden because of the re-coatings required. Steel must be protected against corrosion and this is usually done by applying a protective paint to the bare steel surface. It also happens to be the best material for sealing welds or make shifting repairs on cracked boats—definitely worth keeping on hand. Steel bars start functioning when concrete cracks i. From new construction to renovations, general weathersealing to structural glazing, versatile and proven DOWSIL™ 795 Silicone Building Sealant does it all—delivering a durable yet highly flexible seal to a wide range of substrates. A second method of resisting tensile forces in concrete structures is by pre-stressing.
It&39;s the stuff that Norm Abrams and Tom Silva are always raving about on This Old House TV program. More Bitchathane videos. WILL YOUR ROOF LAST LONG ENOUGH TO JUSTIFY ITS COST? Preface: Grim reader Ghost anecdote / Laura Kasischke Not even lions and tigers / Steve Amick Thin air / Elizabeth Kostova Backseat driver / James Hynes Pier Road / Nicholas Delbanco Bones on Bois Blanc / Laura Hulthen Thomas Bitchathane / Anne-Marie Oomen Estate sale / Kelly Fordon Making bakes / Lolita Hernandez The devil in Cross Village / Eileen Pollack The man at the edge / Keith Taylor. The high strengths of steel allow small cross-sections of beams or girders and therefore a low dead load of the structure.
BITUTHENE® 4000 surface conditioner is water-based primer that is specifically formulated to promote adhesion by binding dust and concrete efflorescence to help provide a suitable surface for the BITUTHENE® 4000 waterproofing membrane. In the video, it’s been installed on the entire roof. Ae at best prices. Available in tubes or pails. I am looking at a way of applying a vertical DPM and Bitchathene has been suggested as a good way forward.
We say probably because this system is very young and many of the first SPF roofs that were installed in the late 1960s and early 1970s are still in service. Peel & Seal roll roofing is 33ft. Secure and waterproof seal 6. Granite masonry was preferred for piers of bridges across the River Rhine, because it resists erosion by sandy water much better than the hardest concrete. Self-adhered membrane consisting of a SBS rubberized asphalt. Installation & Instructions 3. MFM Peel & Seal can also be used as flashing around ducts, vents, chimneys, air conditioning units, or even on gutters.
A multi-year exploration of the country in a pick-up truck and travel trailer in search of new sights, new people and new places to contra dance. Our experts are capable of handling anything from a simple concrete leveling to a complex foundation repair. Tremco is a manufacturer of roofing materials and services, construction sealants, glazing and gaskets, waterproofing systems, concrete admixtures and sealers, grouts and mortars, fire stopping systems and a host of custom designed products, programs and services dedicated to.
Today all stiffeners are placed on this inside so as to achieve a smooth outer surface allowing no accumulation of dust or dirt deposits that retain humidity and promote corrosion - the &92;&92;"Achilles heel&92;&92;" of steel structures. These roofs have endured for around 50 years and show no signs of stopping, but no average has been determined because the system is so young. How many blue plates would it take to cover the purple part of the floor? Ghost Writers von Keith Taylor, Laura Kasischke (ISBNbestellen. See full list on aboutcivil. But I read about everything of Salinger’s that I could when I was a confused little kid and Raise High The Roof Beam Carpenters was a title I loved.
Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide. 85 per square foot. ) on the whole roof deck before applying slate or wood shingles.
For bridges one should use that material which results in the best bridge regarding shape, technical quality, economics and compatibility with the environment. The VOC (Volatile Organic Compound) content is 200 g/L. They differ also in their structure, texture and color or in the possibilities of surface treatment with differing texture and color. &0183;&32;I work on old houses as a carpenter-designer-builder and GC. A proven performer for high performance structural glazing and weathersealing.
Its strong adhesion makes it a perfect choice for sealing. Long and is ideal for roofs and surfaces that are difficult to waterproof and can be used on many surfaces including: metal roofs, mobile homes, RVs or trailers, and sunroofs. Works on low slope and low pitch roofs 5.
This is not a book review. · BITUTHENE® 4000 surface conditioner is water-based primer that is specifically formulated to promote adhesion by binding dust and concrete efflorescence to help provide a suitable surface for the BITUTHENE® 4000 waterproofing membrane. Hether you need a roof replacement or repair, using a roof membrane is a smart decision. Peel & Seal roll roofing is 33ft.
The Aftermath: Left Hip Detail: Right Hip Detail. Rubber roofing and EPDM rubber for all your DIY flat roofing projects. Use Bituthene Mastic is designed to seal terminations, edges of patches and overlaps in detail areas. There are some maintenance activities that must be done, there is no roofing system that doesnt require maintenance, but concrete is one of the easier ones. If you still wish to remove these, you may do so by updating your browser settings. Some folks like using poly coated aluminum flashing as well. Stop problems with the right waterproofing system.
Ghost Writers: Us Haunting Them, Contemporary Michigan Literature: Oomen, Author Anne-Marie, Pollack, Eileen, Kostova, Elizabeth, Schmuhl, Elizabeth, Hynes, James. However, its tensile strength is low, so is not preferred in areas of tensile stresses. NYC restaurant's coronavirus solution: test. EN139 67 ENEN 139 67 ENC M Y CM MY CY CMY K Bituthene4000_newill.
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